History 4971.2 European Seminar: Martin Luther In Early Modern Germany

Instructor: John Frymire mailto:frymirej@missouri.edu%20
308-A Read Hall, 882-4658

Background Information

Reference Books Titles in blue are in the Ready Reference area near the Reference desk at the south end of Ellis Library; titles in green are in the Reference area of Ellis Library. Neither may be checked out. Linked titles are online reference works.

Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (especially vol. 6, which opens with Luther, Martin) B51.R68 1998
Encyclopedia of Religion BL31. E46 1993
Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation BR302.8 .O93 1996
Dictionary of the History of Ideas –check the index for Luther. CB5.D52
Encyclopedia of the Renaissance CB361.E52 1999
Historical Dictionary of the Renaissance CB 361.N35 2004
Dictionary of the Middle Ages D114 .D5 1982

Reference Websites

Oxford Reference Online Cross-searches hundreds of online reference books. All full-text. (for now, only accessible from M.U. campus locations).

Gale Virtual Reference Library Cross-searches hundreds of reference books. All full-text.

Project Wittenberg is an effort by Concordia Theological Seminary to create an online “home to works by and about Martin Luther and other Lutherans. Here you will find all manner of texts from short quotations to commentaries, hymns to statements of faith, theological treatises to biographies, and links to other places where words and images from the history of Lutheranism live.” (description from project website)

Primary Sources

Luther’s Works on CD-ROM

Both Luther’s Works and Luther’s Sermons are available at the CD-ROM workstations in the back right (southwest) corner of the Information Commons area of Ellis Library.

Brief Instructions for Luther’s Works
Brief Instructions for Luther’s Sermons

Print volumes are on reserve for this class.

MU Libraries Special Collections Website

Library Catalog Hints for finding primary sources

Check the MERLIN catalog and/or MOBIUS or Worldcat under subject headings starting with: luther martin 1483-1546 or use combined keyword-subject searches like luther* and s:personal narratives; luther* and s:diaries; luther* and s:correspondence; luther* and s:sermons. To find early works, use the Advanced Search to limit publication date to the appropriate years, e.g. “before 1600” or the like.

Online Full-Text Sources

Project Wittenberglinks to some full text Luther and Luther-related sources “in final form.” (see longer description of this source above).

Christian Classics Ethereal Library is a large collection of full text and audio files of Christian writings organized by Calvin College and run by volunteers. Some sound files as well as text files are included here.

Secondary Sources: Finding Articles

General Procedure:Start with topic searches in a database so that you know the exact articles you’re looking for. If the database does not contain the full text of the article, look for the journal in which the article appeared in ELECTRONIC JOURNALS and print journal holdings in MERLIN.

International Medieval Bibliography(print resource, shelved in Reference area of Ellis Library) indexes articles on the medieval period better than many of the electronic databases. This period predates Luther, of course, but if you are comparing Luther’s times or philosophy/theology to earlier times or philosophies/theologies, this index will be helpful.

Academic Search Premier contains some full text and some citations + abstracts of articles from journals, some magazines and a couple of newspapers; our largest cross-disciplinary database. To preview the database’s new visual search interface, narrow-by-subject and sort-by-author/source, which will soon become permanent features of all Ebsco databases, follow this link.MU users only

Historical Abstracts Database citations to articles, dissertations, book reviews by historians of non-U.S. history after 1400; a few links to full-text articles stored in other databases are provided. Note: “Luther, Martin” and “Reformation” are both considered subjects. You can use either or both, and then add additional search terms on the first line of the search. MU users only

JSTOR Full-text. Doesn’t search nearly as many journals as Historical Abstracts, but you can get more exact searches since the full text is searchable. Last 5 years of most journals are not available due to publisher restrictions. MU users only

ATLA Religion More religious perspectives, but some historical perspectives. Some full text, especially for older articles. MU users only

Project Muse Full-text. Not too much on Luther and the Reformation, but what is here is in full text and unlike JSTOR, contains the more recent articles. MU users only

http://proxy.mul.missouri.edu:2048/login?url=http://finditatmu.library.missouri.edu (e-journal lookup service)–use this to find full text holdings of any journal title MU users only

Secondary Sources: Finding Books

To search for books on a topic, go straight to a library catalog such as MERLIN (for the MU Libraries), MOBIUS (for all Missouri academic libraries) or Worldcat (for most U.S. and some non-U.S. libraries).

To search for a small piece of information within a sizeable number of books, try Google Book Search. The advanced search is recommended. Some full text is available if you sign up for a Google login i.d. and password. Full text availability varies by copyright status of work and license between Google and the book’s publisher for in-copyright works. Note: Printing from Google Book Search is generally close to impossible. Therefore, it is best to use this resource to pinpoint particular books and pages to obtain at a library or bookstore if you need the pages in print format.

Hints on Using MERLIN and MOBIUS

1) Do not only browse the shelves. We have a lot of books on Luther stored off-site in the Depository, so take time to look through the books under appropriate subject headings in MERLIN.

2) Subject headings: if you have a name, start by searching the name (last name first) as a subject heading. Even if you don’t have a name, try a broad subject search. Look for smaller subdivisions of the subject that may be helpful.

3) To save time, look for the Limit Search button to limit your search to English language.

4) If we don’t have a book you want, search for the book in All MERLIN and use the Request Item function. Still no luck? Use MOBIUS.

Further Study

history discussion lists

H-Net discussion networks can provide a window into scholarly discussions on history. Relevant discussion networks might include H-Ideas, H-Soz-u-kult, H-Catholic, H-German, and possibly others, depending on your interest. You can search the discussion networks and other parts of H-Net.

citation guides

Chicago (Turabian) style is the most frequently used style for the discipline of history. It allows you to use either footnote or parenthetical author-year citation — ask your professor which he prefers. There is a brief online guide to citation using the Chicago style at the University of Wisconsin Writing Center.

Ellis Library also has a copy of the latest edition of the guide at Ready Reference Z253.U69.

on writing the research paper

Feeling lost and alone when writing your paper? Here’s a friend. Steve Kreis, who got his Ph.D. in history at MU, has designedThe History Guide, with good, practical ideas on finding and narrowing topics, putting together what you find in your research, and writing a good paper. (A side note: anyone considering graduate school in history should read Dr. Kreis’ autobiography.)

Finally, here are a few ways to write an interesting paper:

1) Trace a change in a state of affairs and make a stab at explaining the change.

2) Relate an unofficial version of an “official story.”

3) Contrast real life with a common stereotype. (Luther in film vs. Luther in sermons)

4) Compare a real-life situation or event with a theory of social life or change. How much (or little!) does this theory account for what happened?

5) Distill a pattern of thought or action shared by people in a time period out of the historical record. (Women were treated in X manner in Luther’s sermons under B circumstances, but in Z manner under F circumstances)

6) Make up a typology, or finite set of categories, that makes complex data easier to comprehend. (churchgoers, charity donors, educators, self-made/lay priests as categories of religious participants across religions in 1500’s Germany)

7) Compare and contrast two groups of people or two events that seem at first glance to be either very similar to each other or completely unrelated/different. Show what makes them similar and different.(ex.: Reformed and Catholic sacraments in 16th-Century German life)

In general, emphasize the unexpected: something appearing monolithic at first glance is really complex; something that seems to have “always been that way” actually evolved; a religion or government appearing to function from the top down actually experienced change from the bottom up; something appearing to be an effect is really a cause; something that appears as a cause is merely a correlation.